One Ocean: How climate change affects the ocean: Agulhas Rings from the Agulhas Current spill from the Indian Ocean into the South Atlantic. It shows how the world’s five oceans – Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic Ufabet, and Southern – are not isolated bodies of water.
They are interconnected, forming a single ocean, known as the World or Global Ocean. It transports energy, mainly in the form of heat and movement, and matter, as solids, dissolved substances, and gases, around the globe, a transport and circulatory system popularly known as the ‘ocean conveyor belt’.
One leg of the circuit that has been intensely studied by oceanographers is in the North Atlantic. Here, warm surface waters are carried by the winddriven Gulf Stream from the tropics towards the Arctic. Off the coasts of Greenland, intensely cold dry winds blow down from the ice-bound land surface; these ufabet winds evaporate the water, increasing the density in the ocean.
The dense, cold water sinks into the deep sea, forming the North Atlantic Deep Water current. This flows southwards at a depth of between 1,500 and 4,000 metres, until it mixes with similar waters from the Antarctic. It is then carried as Circumpolar Deep Water into the deep Indian and Pacific oceans.
On some coasts and around oceanic islands, the winds and local topography cause nutrient-rich waters from the deep sea to well up to the surface, so-called ‘upwellings’, and on other coasts the surface waters sink to the depths as ‘downwellings’. Both have a profound effect on marine life, fuelling the food chain and influencing where animals live or migrate.
All this is an oversimplification, of course, but it shows how all the oceans and all parts of the oceans, at all depths, are linked, not only horizontally but also vertically. It’s also clear to see that, with a changing climate, the warming ufabet Arctic Ocean is less likely to sink and feed the North Atlantic Deep Water current, so the entire conveyor belt would be slowed or could even come to a halt, with potentially disastrous consequences for weather and climates around the world.